Corporal punishment definition

Accessed 10 Mar. More Definitions for corporal punishment. Note: The prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment in the Eighth Amendment to the U.

Constitution imposes limits on the use of corporal punishment on convicted offenders and prisoners. The U. Supreme Court has found the Eighth Amendment to be inapplicable to the use of corporal punishment on schoolchildren. What made you want to look up corporal punishment? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Providing access to an excess of info.

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corporal punishment

Save Word.Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain to a person. When practised on minorsespecially in home and school settings, methods include spanking or paddling. When practised on adults, it may be practised on prisoners and slaves.

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Punishment for crime by inflicting pain or injury, including floggingbrandingand even mutilationwas practised in most civilizations since ancient times. With the growth of humanitarian ideals since the Enlightenmentsuch punishments are increasingly viewed as inhumane in Occidental societies. By the late 20th century, corporal punishment had been eliminated from the legal systems of most developed countries.

The legality in the twenty-first century of corporal punishment in various settings differs by jurisdiction. Internationally, the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries saw the application of human rights law to the question of corporal punishment in a number of contexts:.

In many Western countries, medical and human-rights organizations oppose corporal punishment of children. Campaigns against corporal punishment have aimed to bring about legal reform to ban the use of corporal punishment against minors in homes and schools. Author Jared Diamond writes that hunter-gatherer societies have tended to use little corporal punishment whereas agricultural and industrial societies tend to use progressively more of it.

Diamond suggests this may be because hunter-gatherers tend to have few valuable physical possessions, and misbehavior of the child would not cause harm to others' property.

Probably the only generalization that can be made about the use of physical punishment among primitive tribes is that there was no common procedure [ Corporal punishment of children has traditionally been used in the Western world by adults in authority roles.

He that spareth the rod, hateth his son; but he that loveth him, chasteneth him betimes. Proverbs, XIII, Chasten thy son while there is hope, and let not thy soul spare for his crying. Proverbs, XIX, Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it from him. Proverbs, XXII, Withhold not correction from the child; for if thou beatest him with a rod, thou shalt deliver his soul from hell.

Robert McCole Wilson argues, "Probably this attitude comes, at least in part, from the desire in the patriarchal society for the elder to maintain his authority, where that authority was the main agent for social stability.

But these are the words that not only justified the use of physical punishment on children for over a thousand years in Christian communities, but ordered it to be used. The words were accepted with but few exceptions; it is only in the last two hundred years that there has been a growing body of opinion that differed. Curiously, the gentleness of Christ towards children Mark, X was usually ignored".

Corporal punishment was used in EgyptChinaGreeceand Rome for both judicial and educational discipline. Corporal punishment was prescribed in ancient Israel, but was limited to 40 lashes.

Some states gained a reputation for using such punishments cruelly; Spartain particular, used them as part of a disciplinary regime designed to build willpower and physical strength.

In the Roman Empire, the maximum penalty that a Roman citizen could receive under the law was 40 "lashes" or "strokes" with a whip applied to the back and shoulders, or with the " fasces " similar to a birch rod, but consisting of 8—10 lengths of willow rather than birch applied to the buttocks.

Such punishments could draw blood, and were frequently inflicted in public. Quintilian c. According to Wilson, "probably no more lucid indictment of it has been made in the succeeding two thousand years". By that boys should suffer corporal punishment, though it is received by custom, and Chrysippus makes no objection to it, I by no means approve; first, because it is a disgrace, and a punishment fit for slaves, and in reality as will be evident if you imagine the age change an affront; secondly, because, if a boy's disposition be so abject as not to be amended by reproof, he will be hardened, like the worst of slaves, even to stripes; and lastly, because, if one who regularly exacts his tasks be with him, there will not be the need of any chastisement Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, edition, I, III.

Corporal punishment

This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the free-born; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation.

In Medieval Europethe Byzantine Empire blinded and denosed some criminals and rival emperors. Their belief that the emperor should be physically ideal meant that such disfigurement notionally disqualified the recipient from office. The second reign of Justinian the Slit-nosed was the notable exception. Elsewhere, corporal punishment was encouraged by the attitudes of the Catholic church towards the human body, flagellation being a common means of self-discipline.

This had an influence on the use of corporal punishment in schools, as educational establishments were closely attached to the church during this period.Laura Galyer, Marketing Director, EMEA, APAC, South America at SensusThis is a really interesting post Mike.

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corporal punishment definition

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corporal punishment definition

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It's true that most often investors are rewarded long term for taking extra volatility risk.

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Since 1926, the average annualised ERP has been 4. And theoretically, investors should be rewarded for suffering through stock market swings.

If you weren't likely to get higher reward for higher risk, why would anyone want the higher risk. The problem is that some academics try to model future ERPs - predicting future stock returns. I've never seen any ERP model stand up to historical back-testing. Yet every year, we get a new wave of them. When I say future, I mean most ERPs attempt forecasting far into the future - usually seven to 10 years (10 is most common).

Yet stock returns in the near term - over the next 12 to 24 months - are driven mostly by shifts in demand, and even those are devilishly difficult to forecast. Further out, supply pressures swamp all, so there is absolutely no way to predict stock market direction seven or 10 years out unless you can somehow predict future stock supply shifts.

But not a single ERP model I've ever seen has addressed the issue of predicting long-term supply flows.

corporal punishment definition

And if you can't address future supply, your model is worthless because with securities, in the long term supply is all that matters. None of these ERPs stands up to historical back-testing, or if they do it's merely accidentalInstead, most ERP models make forward-looking assumptions based on cobbled-together current or past conditions. But right away you know past performance is never, by itself, indicative of future results. An example of an ERP model might look like this: take the current dividend yield, the average earnings per share over the last 10 years, plus the current inflation rate, and subtract the bond yield.

Add or subtract a few components. Mix that together with a guesstimate for some percentage by which stocks are supposed to beat bonds over the next 10 years, based on what treasuries are yielding now. Except what does today's dividend yield, inflation yield, earnings or anything else have to say about what will happen 10 years from now.

Or even three years. Academics who are prone to bearishness - surprise. They say: "The ERP will be below average for the next 10 years, just 1. On the upside, bullish academics (who are fewer) produce bullish ERPs with their own biases.

Still, bullish or bearish, all ERP projections are as much bunk as anyone else's long-term forecasts: bias-based guesstimates, nothing more. Another ERP red flag. ERP models usually predict 2 or 2.